To make sure participants read all stories properly, comprehension questions followed after 50% of the stories. Our findings do not seem to be consistent with the literature. So, option D is correct. Whenever the quotation was in direct speech in one version, it was in indirect speech in the other version. Tim and Laura are playing tennis in the park. Her English ________ _____________ a lot since she started taking English classes. With the exclusion of these participants, our sample included 203 native speakers of English. However, after each last sentence, participants were presented with either a high (650 Hz) or a low (450 Hz) tone. Indirect: He said that Mac is better than windows laptop. Next, they read 48 sentences online (24 experimental sentences that were adapted from ; 24 fillers that we created ourselves; see Appendix S3). The pronounced words were collected from http://www.merriam-webster.com/. A reported Speech Kidnapping story. I feel completely exhausted.”. Words were presented in random order. The right answer to these questions was ‘yes’ 50% of the time. They found that people tend to read direct speech quotations faster whenever the talker speaks quickly (i.e., when someone was in a hurry) compared to when he was talking slowly. To make sure participants read all stories properly, comprehension questions followed after 25% of the stories. The fact that we did not find a priming effect of direct speech on auditory probes is therefore consistent with the results of Kurby and colleagues . Accuracy levels in Experiments 3a and 3b were lower than in our previous experiments. Simply put, we use the speaker’s own words in direct speech. After the third sentence, a fixation cross appeared in the middle of the screen for 1000 ms, followed immediately by the probe. All participants were residents of the USA and received $0.5 for their participation, which required approximately 18 minutes. It might be the case that the influence of direct speech takes place at another level of mental representation. According to this power analysis, at least 174 participants were needed to obtain statistical power at the recommended.80 level  (An anonymous reviewer suggested to use an ANOVA with repeated measures to estimate the sample size rather than a t-test. Based on these results, we expected people to focus more on the exact words in direct speech than in indirect speech. 3. Ad. Always remember that you must take a step back in the past. There was also no effect of speech on response times to the probes, t(171) = 0.10, p = .92, BF01 = 16.45. However, our results do show that direct speech leads to a stronger mental representation of the exact wording of a sentence than does indirect speech. However, this time, the probes were presented auditorily instead of visually. The participants in all experiments were recruited online and voluntarily subscribed for participation in the described experiments. It also explains why direct-speech responses to visual probes were slower than expected in our previous experiments; participants had mentally shifted away from the visual modality. These two ways are also used to simply narrate spoken-words (have no message to convey) of one person to another. We expected direct speech to make readers focus more on the communicative situation (i.e., the way of speaking) as opposed to the referential situation (i.e., the content of the speech) than indirect speech. Eight participants reported another language than English as their native language. It was 5.30 p.m. and everybody was ready to leave the office. 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